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  • Catechetical Sunday 2014 - Web Ad 270x200 - Spanish - Montage
     

    Chapter IV: The Different Forms of Celebrating Mass

     

    112. In the local Church, first place should certainly be given, because of its significance, to the Mass at which the Bishop presides, surrounded by his Presbyterate, Deacons, and lay ministers,[90] and in which the holy People of God participate fully and actively, for it is there that the principal manifestation of the Church is found.

    At a Mass celebrated by the Bishop or at which he presides without celebrating the Eucharist, the norms found in the Caeremoniale Episcoporum (Ceremonial of Bishops) should be observed.[91]

    113. Great importance should also be given to a Mass celebrated with any community, but especially with the parish community, inasmuch as it represents the universal Church at a given time and place, and chiefly in the common Sunday celebration.[92]

    114. Moreover, among those Masses celebrated by some communities, a particular place belongs to the Conventual Mass, which is a part of the daily Office, or the “community” Mass. Although such Masses do not involve any special form of celebration, it is nevertheless most fitting that they be
    celebrated with singing, especially with the full participation of all members of the community, whether of religious or of canons. Therefore, in these Masses all should exercise their function according to the Order or ministry they have received. Hence, it is desirable that all the Priests who are not obliged to celebrate individually for the pastoral benefit of the faithful concelebrate in so far as possible at the conventual or community Mass. In addition, all Priests belonging to the community who are obliged, as a matter of duty, to celebrate individually for the pastoral benefit of the faithful may also on the same day concelebrate at the conventual or community Mass.[93] For it is preferable that Priests who are present at a celebration of the Eucharist, unless excused for a just reason, should usually exercise the function proper to their Order and hence take part as concelebrants, wearing sacred vestments. Otherwise, they wear their proper choir dress or a surplice over a cassock.

    I. Mass with the People

    115. By Mass with the people is meant a Mass celebrated with the participation of the faithful. Moreover, it is appropriate, in so far as possible, and especially on Sundays and Holydays of Obligation, that the celebration take place with singing and with a suitable number of ministers.[94] It may, however, take place even without singing and with only one minister.

    116. If at any celebration of Mass a Deacon is present, he should exercise his function. Furthermore, it is desirable that an acolyte, a reader, and a cantor should usually be there to assist the Priest Celebrant. Indeed, the rite described below foresees an even greater number of ministers.

    Things to Be Prepared

    117. The altar is to be covered with at least one white cloth. In addition, on or next to the altar are to be placed candlesticks with lighted candles: at least two in any celebration, or even four or six, especially for a Sunday Mass or a Holyday of Obligation, or if the Diocesan Bishop celebrates, then seven candlesticks with lighted candles. Likewise, on the altar or close to it, there is to be a cross adorned with a figure of Christ crucified. The candles and the cross with the figure of Christ crucified may also be carried in the procession at the Entrance. On the altar itself may be placed a Book of the Gospels distinct from the book of other readings, unless it is carried in the Entrance Procession.

    118. Likewise these should be prepared:

    a) next to the Priest’s chair: the Missal and, if appropriate, a hymnal;

    b) at the ambo: the Lectionary;

    c) on the credence table: the chalice, corporal, purificator, and, if appropriate, the pall; the paten and, if needed, ciboria; bread for the Communion of the Priest who presides, the Deacon, the ministers, and the people; cruets containing the wine and the water, unless all of these are presented by the faithful in the procession at the Offertory; the vessel of water to be blessed, if the sprinkling of holy water takes place; the Communion-plate for the Communion of the faithful; and whatever is needed for the washing of hands.

    It is a praiseworthy practice for the chalice to be covered with a veil, which may be either of the color of the day or white.

    119. In the sacristy, according to the various forms of celebration, there should be prepared the sacred vestments (cf. nos. 337-341) for the Priest, the Deacon, and other ministers:

    a) for the Priest: the alb, the stole, and the chasuble;

    b) for the Deacon: the alb, the stole, and the dalmatic; the latter may be omitted, however, either out of necessity or on account of a lesser degree of solemnity;

    c) for the other ministers: albs or other lawfully approved attire.[95]

    All who wear an alb should use a cincture and an amice unless, due to the form of the alb, they are not needed.

    When the Entrance takes place with a procession, the following are also to be prepared: a Book of the Gospels; on Sundays and festive days, a thurible and incense boat, if incense is being used; the cross to be carried in procession; and candlesticks with lighted candles.

    A) Mass without a Deacon

    The Introductory Rites

    120. When the people are gathered, the Priest and ministers, wearing the sacred vestments, go in procession to the altar in this order:

    a) the thurifer carrying a smoking thurible, if incense is being used;

    b) ministers who carry lighted candles, and between them an acolyte or other minister with the cross;

    c) the acolytes and the other ministers;

    d) a reader, who may carry a Book of the Gospels (though not a Lectionary), slightly elevated;

    e) the Priest who is to celebrate the Mass.

    If incense is being used, before the procession begins, the Priest puts some into the thurible and blesses it with the Sign of the Cross without saying anything.

    121. During the procession to the altar, the Entrance Chant takes place (cf. nos. 47-48).

    122. When they reach the altar, the Priest and ministers make a profound bow.

    The cross adorned with a figure of Christ crucified, and carried in procession, may be placed next to the altar to serve as the altar cross, in which case it must be the only cross used; otherwise it is put away in a dignified place. As for the candlesticks, these are placed on the altar or near it. It is a praiseworthy practice for the Book of the Gospels to be placed on the altar.

    123. The Priest goes up to the altar and venerates it with a kiss. Then, if appropriate, he incenses the cross and the altar, walking around the latter.

    124. Once all this has been done, the Priest goes to the chair. When the Entrance Chant is concluded, with everybody standing, the Priest and faithful sign themselves with the Sign of the Cross. The Priest says: In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. The people reply, Amen.

    Then, facing the people and extending his hands, the Priest greets the people, using one of the formulas indicated. The Priest himself or some other minister may also very briefly introduce the faithful to the Mass of the day.

    125. The Penitential Act follows. After this, the Kyrie is sung or said, in accordance with the rubrics (cf. no. 52).

    126. For celebrations where it is prescribed, the Gloria in excelsis (Glory to God in the highest) is either sung or said (cf. no. 53).

    127. The Priest then calls upon the people to pray, saying, with hands joined, Let us pray. All pray silently with the Priest for a brief time. Then the Priest, with hands extended, says the Collect, at the end of which the people acclaim, Amen.

    The Liturgy of the Word

    128. After the Collect, all sit. The Priest may, very briefly, introduce the faithful to the Liturgy of the Word. Then the reader goes to the ambo and, from the Lectionary already placed there before Mass, proclaims the First Reading, to which all listen. At the end, the reader pronounces the acclamation The word of the Lord, and all reply, Thanks be to God.

    Then a few moments of silence may be observed, if appropriate, so that all may meditate on what they have heard.

    129. Then the psalmist or the reader proclaims the verses of the Psalm and the people make the response as usual.

    130. If there is to be a Second Reading before the Gospel, the reader proclaims it from the ambo. All listen and at the end reply to the acclamation, as noted above (no. 128). Then, if appropriate, a few moments of silence may be observed.

    131. After this, all rise, and the Alleluia or other chant is sung as the liturgical time requires (cf. nos. 62-64).

    132. During the singing of the Alleluia or other chant, if incense is being used, the Priest puts some into the thurible and blesses it. Then, with hands joined, he bows profoundly before the altar and quietly says the prayer Munda cor meum (Cleanse my heart).

    133. If the Book of the Gospels is on the altar, the Priest then takes it and approaches the ambo, carrying the Book of the Gospels slightly elevated. He is preceded by the lay ministers, who may carry the thurible and the candles. Those present turn towards the ambo as a sign of special reverence for the Gospel of Christ.

    134. At the ambo, the Priest opens the book and, with hands joined, says, The Lord be with you, to which the people reply, And with your spirit. Then he says, A reading from the holy Gospel, making the Sign of the Cross with his thumb on the book and on his forehead, mouth, and breast, which everyone else does as well. The people acclaim, Glory to you, O Lord. The Priest incenses the book, if incense is being used (cf. nos. 276-277). Then he proclaims the Gospel and at the end pronounces the acclamation The Gospel of the Lord, to which all reply, Praise to you, Lord Jesus Christ. The Priest kisses the book, saying quietly the formula Per evangelica dicta (Through the words of the Gospel).

    135. If no reader is present, the Priest himself proclaims all the readings and the Psalm, standing at the ambo. If incense is being used, he puts some incense into the thurible at the ambo, blesses it, and, bowing profoundly, says the prayer Munda cor meum (Cleanse my heart).

    136. The Priest, standing at the chair or at the ambo itself or, if appropriate, in another worthy place, gives the Homily. When the Homily is over, a period of silence may be observed.

    137. The Symbol or Creed is sung or recited by the Priest together with the people (cf. no. 68) with everyone standing. At the words et incarnatus est, etc. (and by the Holy Spirit . . . and became man) all make a profound bow; but on the Solemnities of the Annunciation and of the Nativity of the Lord, all genuflect.

    138. After the recitation of the Symbol or Creed, the Priest, standing at the chair with his hands joined, by means of a brief address calls upon the faithful to participate in the Universal Prayer. Then the cantor, the reader, or another person announces the intentions from the ambo or from some other suitable place while facing the people. The latter take their part by replying in supplication. At the very end, the Priest, with hands extended, concludes the petitions with a prayer.

    The Liturgy of the Eucharist

    139. When the Universal Prayer is over, all sit, and the Offertory Chant begins (cf. no. 74).

    An acolyte or other lay minister places the corporal, the purificator, the chalice, the pall, and the Missal on the altar.

    140. It is desirable that the participation of the faithful be expressed by an offering, whether of bread and wine for the celebration of the Eucharist or of other gifts to relieve the needs of the Church and of the poor.

    The offerings of the faithful are received by the Priest, assisted by the acolyte or other minister. The bread and wine for the Eucharist are carried to the Celebrant, who places them on the altar, while other gifts are put in another suitable place (cf. no. 73).

    141. The Priest accepts the paten with the bread at the altar, holds it slightly raised above the altar with both hands and says quietly, Benedictus es, Domine (Blessed are you, Lord God). Then he places the paten with the bread on
    the corporal.

    142. After this, as the minister presents the cruets, the Priest stands at the side of the altar and pours wine and a little water into the chalice, saying quietly, Per huius aquae (By the mystery of this water). He returns to the middle of the altar and with both hands raises the chalice a little, and says quietly, Benedictus es, Domine (Blessed are you, Lord God). Then he places the chalice on the corporal and, if appropriate, covers it with a pall.

    If, however, there is no Offertory Chant and the organ is not played, in the presentation of the bread and wine the Priest may say the formulas of blessing aloud and the people acclaim, Blessed be God for ever.

    143. After placing the chalice on the altar, the Priest bows profoundly and says quietly, In spiritu humilitatis (With humble spirit).

    144. If incense is being used, the Priest then puts some in the thurible, blesses it without saying anything, and incenses the offerings, the cross, and the altar. While standing at the side of the altar, a minister incenses the Priest and then the people.

    145. After the prayer In spiritu humilitatis (With humble spirit) or after the incensation, the Priest washes his hands standing at the side of the altar and, as the minister pours the water, says quietly, Lava me, Domine (Wash me, O Lord).

    146. Returning to the middle of the altar, and standing facing the people, the Priest extends and then joins his hands, and calls upon the people to pray, saying, Orate, fratres (Pray, brethren). The people rise and make the response May the Lord accept the sacrifice, etc. Then the Priest, with hands extended, says the Prayer over the Offerings. At the end the people acclaim, Amen.

    147. Then the Priest begins the Eucharistic Prayer. In accordance with the rubrics (cf. no. 365), he selects a Eucharistic Prayer from those found in the Roman Missal or approved by the Apostolic See. By its very nature, the Eucharistic Prayer requires that only the Priest say it, in virtue of his Ordination. The people, for their part, should associate themselves with the Priest in faith and in silence, as well as by means of their interventions as prescribed in the course of the Eucharistic Prayer: namely, the responses in the Preface dialogue, the Sanctus (Holy, Holy, Holy), the acclamation after the Consecration, the acclamation Amen after the concluding doxology, as well as other acclamations approved by the Conference of Bishops with the recognitio of the Holy See.

    It is most appropriate that the Priest sing those parts of the Eucharistic Prayer for which musical notation is provided.

    148. As he begins the Eucharistic Prayer, the Priest extends his hands and sings or says, The Lord be with you. The people reply, And with your spirit. As he continues, saying, Lift up your hearts, he raises his hands. The people reply, We lift them up to the Lord. Then the Priest, with hands extended, adds, Let us give thanks to the Lord our God, and the people reply, It is right and just. After this, the Priest, with hands extended, continues the Preface. At its conclusion, he joins his hands and, together with all those present, sings or says aloud the Sanctus (Holy, Holy, Holy) (cf. no. 79 b).

    149. The Priest continues the Eucharistic Prayer in accordance with the rubrics that are set out in each of the Prayers.

    If the celebrant is a Bishop, in the Prayers, after the words N., our Pope, he adds, and me, your unworthy servant. If, however, the Bishop is celebrating outside his own diocese, after the words with . . . N., our Pope, he adds, my brother N., the Bishop of this Church, and me, your unworthy servant; or after the words especially . . . N., our Pope, he adds, my brother N., the Bishop of this Church, and me, your unworthy servant.

    The Diocesan Bishop, or one who is equivalent to the Diocesan Bishop in law, must be mentioned by means of this formula: together with your servant N., our Pope, and N., our Bishop (or Vicar, Prelate, Prefect, Abbot).

    It is permitted to mention Coadjutor Bishop and Auxiliary Bishops in the Eucharistic Prayer, but not other Bishops who happen to be present. When several are to be mentioned, this is done with the collective formula: N., our Bishop and his assistant Bishops.

    In each of the Eucharistic Prayers, these formulas are to be adapted according to the requirements of grammar.

    150. A little before the Consecration, if appropriate, a minister rings a small bell as a signal to the faithful. The minister also rings the small bell at each elevation by the Priest, according to local custom.

    If incense is being used, when the host and the chalice are shown to the people after the Consecration, a minister incenses them.

    151. After the Consecration when the Priest has said, The mystery of faith, the people pronounce the acclamation, using one of the prescribed formulas.

    At the end of the Eucharistic Prayer, the Priest takes the paten with the host and the chalice and elevates them both while pronouncing alone the doxology Through him. At the end the people acclaim, Amen. After this, the Priest places the paten and the chalice on the corporal.

    152. After the Eucharistic Prayer is concluded, the Priest, with hands joined, says alone the introduction to the Lord’s Prayer, and then with hands extended, he pronounces the prayer together with the people.

    153. After the Lord’s Prayer is concluded, the Priest, with hands extended, says alone the embolism Libera nos (Deliver us, Lord). At the end, the people acclaim, For the kingdom.

    154. Then the Priest, with hands extended, says aloud the prayer Domine Iesu Christe, qui dixisti (Lord Jesus Christ, who said to your Apostles) and when it is concluded, extending and then joining his hands, he announces the greeting of peace, facing the people and saying, The peace of the Lord be with you always. The people reply, And with your spirit. After this, if appropriate, the Priest adds, Let us offer each other the sign of peace.

    The Priest may give the Sign of Peace to the ministers but always remains within the sanctuary, so that the celebration is not disrupted. In the Dioceses of the United States of America, for a good reason, on special occasions (for example, in the case of a funeral, a wedding, or when civic leaders are present), the Priest may offer the Sign of Peace to a small number of the faithful near the sanctuary. According to what is decided by the Conference of Bishops, all express to one another peace, communion, and charity. While the Sign of Peace is being given, it is permissible to say, The peace of the Lord be with you always, to which the reply is Amen.

    155. After this, the Priest takes the host, breaks it over the paten, and places a small piece in the chalice, saying quietly, Haec commixtio (May this mingling). Meanwhile the Agnus Dei (Lamb of God) is sung or said by the choir and by the people (cf. no. 83).

    156. Then the Priest, with hands joined, says quietly the prayer for Communion, either Domine Iesu Christe, Fili Dei vivi (Lord Jesus Christ, Son of the living God) or Perceptio Corporis et Sanguinis tui (May the receiving of your Body and Blood).

    157. When the prayer is concluded, the Priest genuflects, takes a host consecrated at the same Mass, and, holding it slightly raised above the paten or above the chalice, facing the people, says, Ecce Agnus Dei (Behold the Lamb of God) and together with the people he adds, Lord, I am not worthy.

    158. After this, standing facing the altar, the Priest says quietly, Corpus Christi custodiat me in vitam aeternam (May the Body of Christ keep me safe for eternal life), and reverently consumes the Body of Christ. Then he takes the chalice, saying quietly, Sanguis Christi custodiat me in vitam aeternam (May the Blood of Christ keep me safe for eternal life), and reverently partakes of the Blood of Christ.

    159. While the Priest is receiving the Sacrament, the Communion Chant begins (cf. no. 86).

    160. The Priest then takes the paten or ciborium and approaches the communicants, who usually come up in procession.

    It is not permitted for the faithful to take the consecrated Bread or the sacred chalice by themselves and, still less, to hand them on from one to another among themselves. The norm established for the Dioceses of the United States of America is that Holy Communion is to be received standing, unless an individual member of the faithful wishes to receive Communion while kneeling (Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, Instruction, Redemptionis Sacramentum, March 25, 2004, no. 91).

    When receiving Holy Communion, the communicant bows his or her head before the Sacrament as a gesture of reverence and receives the Body of the Lord from the minister. The consecrated host may be received either on the tongue or in the hand, at the discretion of each communicant. When Holy Communion is received under both kinds, the sign of reverence is also made before receiving the Precious Blood.

    161. If Communion is given only under the species of bread, the Priest raises the host slightly and shows it to each, saying, The Body of Christ. The communicant replies, Amen, and receives the Sacrament either on the tongue or, where this is allowed, in the hand, the choice lying with the communicant. As soon as the communicant receives the host, he or she consumes the whole of it.

    If, however, Communion is given under both kinds, the rite prescribed in nos. 284-287 is to be followed.

    162. In the distribution of Communion the Priest may be assisted by other Priests who happen to be present. If such Priests are not present and there is a truly large number of communicants, the Priest may call upon extraordinary ministers to assist him, that is, duly instituted acolytes or even other faithful who have been duly deputed for this purpose.[96] In case of necessity, the Priest may depute suitable faithful for this single occasion.[97]

    These ministers should not approach the altar before the Priest has received Communion, and they are always to receive from the hands of the Priest Celebrant the vessel containing the species of the Most Holy Eucharist for distribution to the faithful.

    163. When the distribution of Communion is over, the Priest himself immediately and completely consumes at the altar any consecrated wine that happens to remain; as for any consecrated hosts that are left, he either consumes them at the altar or carries them to the place designated for the reservation of the Eucharist.

    Upon returning to the altar, the Priest collects the fragments, should any remain, and he stands at the altar or at the credence table and purifies the paten or ciborium over the chalice, and after this purifies the chalice, saying quietly the formula Quod ore sumpsimus, Domine (What has passed our lips), and dries the chalice with a purificator. If the vessels are purified at the altar, they are carried to the credence table by a minister. Nevertheless, it is also permitted to leave vessels needing to be purified, especially if there are several, on a corporal, suitably covered, either on the altar or on the credence table, and to purify them immediately after Mass, after the Dismissal of the people.

    164. After this, the Priest may return to the chair. A sacred silence may now be observed for some time, or a Psalm or other canticle of praise or a hymn may be sung (cf. no. 88).

    165. Then, standing at the chair or at the altar, and facing the people with hands joined, the Priest says, Let us pray; then, with hands extended, he recites the Prayer after Communion. A brief period of silence may precede the prayer, unless this has been already observed immediately after Communion. At the end of the prayer the people acclaim, Amen.

    The Concluding Rites

    166. When the Prayer after Communion is concluded, brief announcements should be made to the people, if there are any.

    167. Then the Priest, extending his hands, greets the people, saying, The Lord be with you. They reply, And with your spirit. The Priest, joining his hands again and then immediately placing his left hand on his breast, raises his right hand and adds, May almighty God bless you and, as he makes the Sign of the Cross over the people, he continues, the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit. All reply, Amen.

    On certain days and occasions this blessing, in accordance with the rubrics, is expanded and expressed by a Prayer over the People or another more solemn formula.

    A Bishop blesses the people with the appropriate formula, making the Sign of the Cross three times over the people.[98]

    168. Immediately after the Blessing, with hands joined, the Priest adds, Ite, missa est (Go forth, the Mass is ended) and all reply, Thanks be to God.

    169. Then the Priest venerates the altar as usual with a kiss and, after making a profound bow with the lay ministers, he withdraws with them.

    170. If, however, another liturgical action follows the Mass, the Concluding Rites, that is, the Greeting, the Blessing, and the Dismissal, are omitted.

    B) Mass with a Deacon

    171. When he is present at the celebration of the Eucharist, a Deacon should exercise his ministry, wearing sacred vestments. In fact, the Deacon:

    a) assists the Priest and walks at his side;

    b) ministers at the altar, both as regards the chalice and the book;

    c) proclaims the Gospel and may, at the direction of the Priest Celebrant, give the Homily (cf. no. 66);

    d) guides the faithful people by giving appropriate instructions, and announces the intentions of the Universal Prayer;

    e) assists the Priest Celebrant in distributing Communion, and purifies and arranges the sacred vessels;

    f) carries out the duties of other ministers himself, if necessary, when none of them is present.

    The Introductory Rites

    172. Carrying the Book of the Gospels slightly elevated, the Deacon precedes the Priest as he approaches the altar or else walks at the Priest’s side.

    173. When he reaches the altar, if he is carrying the Book of the Gospels, he omits the sign of reverence and goes up to the altar. It is a praiseworthy practice for him to place the Book of the Gospels on the altar, after which, together with the Priest, he venerates the altar with a kiss.

    If, however, he is not carrying the Book of the Gospels, he makes a profound bow to the altar with the Priest in the customary way and with him venerates the altar with a kiss.

    Lastly, if incense is being used, he assists the Priest in putting some into the thurible and in incensing the cross and the altar.

    174. Once the altar has been incensed, the Deacon goes to the chair together with the Priest and there stands at the Priest’s side and assists him as necessary.

    The Liturgy of the Word

    175. During the singing of the Alleluia or other chant, if incense is being used, the Deacon ministers to the Priest as he puts incense into the thurible. Then, bowing profoundly before the Priest, he asks for the blessing, saying in a low voice, Your blessing, Father. The Priest blesses him, saying, May the Lord be in your heart. The Deacon signs himself with the Sign of the Cross and replies, Amen. Having bowed to the altar, he then takes up the Book of the Gospels which was placed on it and proceeds to the ambo, carrying the book slightly elevated. He is preceded by a thurifer carrying a smoking thurible and by ministers with lighted candles. At the ambo the Deacon greets the people, with hands joined, saying, The Lord be with you. After this, at the words A reading from the holy Gospel, he signs with his thumb the book and then himself on his forehead, mouth, and breast. He incenses the book and proclaims the Gospel reading. When this is done, he acclaims, The Gospel of the Lord, and all reply, Praise to you, Lord Jesus Christ. He then venerates the book with a kiss, saying quietly the formula Per evangelica dicta (Through the words of the Gospel), and returns to the Priest’s side.

    When the Deacon is assisting the Bishop, he carries the book to him to be kissed, or else kisses it himself, saying quietly the formula Per evangelica dicta (Through the words of the Gospel). In more solemn celebrations, if appropriate, the Bishop may impart a blessing to the people with the Book of
    the Gospels.

    Lastly, the Deacon may carry the Book of the Gospels to the credence table or to another suitable and dignified place.

    176. Moreover, if there is no other suitable reader present, the Deacon should proclaim the other readings as well.

    177. After the introduction by the Priest, it is the Deacon himself who announces the intentions of the Universal Prayer, usually from the ambo.

    The Liturgy of the Eucharist

    178. After the Universal Prayer, while the Priest remains at the chair, the Deacon prepares the altar, assisted by the acolyte, but it is the Deacon’s place to take care of the sacred vessels himself. He also assists the Priest in receiving the people’s gifts. After this, he hands the Priest the paten with the bread to be consecrated, pours wine and a little water into the chalice, saying quietly, By the mystery of this water, etc., and after this presents the chalice to the Priest. He may also carry out the preparation of the chalice at the credence table. If incense is being used, the Deacon assists the Priest during the incensation of the offerings, the cross, and the altar; and after this the Deacon himself or the acolyte incenses the Priest and the people.

    179. During the Eucharistic Prayer, the Deacon stands near the Priest, but slightly behind him, so that when necessary he may assist the Priest with the chalice or the Missal.

    From the epiclesis until the Priest shows the chalice, the Deacon usually remains kneeling. If several Deacons are present, one of them may place incense in the thurible for the Consecration and incense the host and the chalice at the elevation.

    180. At the concluding doxology of the Eucharistic Prayer, the Deacon stands next to the Priest, and holds the chalice elevated while the Priest elevates the paten with the host, until the people have acclaimed, Amen.

    181. After the Priest has said the prayer for the Rite of Peace and the greeting The peace of the Lord be with you always and the people have replied, And with your spirit, the Deacon, if appropriate, says the invitation to the Sign of Peace. With hands joined, he faces the people and says, Let us offer each other the sign of peace. Then he himself receives the Sign of Peace from the Priest and may offer it to those other ministers who are nearest to him.

    182. After the Priest’s Communion, the Deacon receives Communion under both kinds from the Priest himself and then assists the Priest in distributing Communion to the people. If Communion is given under both kinds, the Deacon himself administers the chalice to the communicants; and, when the distribution is over, standing at the altar, he immediately and reverently consumes all of the Blood of Christ that remains, assisted, if the case requires, by other Deacons and Priests.

    183. When the distribution of Communion is over, the Deacon returns to the altar with the Priest, collects the fragments, should any remain, and then carries the chalice and other sacred vessels to the credence table, where he purifies them and arranges them as usual, while the Priest returns to the chair. Nevertheless, it is also permitted to leave vessels needing to be purified on a corporal, suitably covered, on the credence table, and to purify them immediately after Mass, following the Dismissal of the people.

    The Concluding Rites

    184. Once the Prayer after Communion has been said, the Deacon makes brief announcements to the people, if indeed any need to be made, unless the Priest prefers to do this himself.

    185. If a Prayer over the People or a formula of Solemn Blessing is used, the Deacon says, Bow down for the blessing. After the Priest’s blessing, the Deacon, with hands joined and facing the people, dismisses the people, saying, Ite, missa est (Go forth, the Mass is ended).

    186. Then, together with the Priest, the Deacon venerates the altar with a kiss, makes a profound bow, and withdraws in a manner similar to the Entrance Procession.

    C) The Functions of the Acolyte

    187. The functions that the acolyte may carry out are of various kinds and several may occur at the same moment. Hence, it is desirable that these duties be suitably distributed among several acolytes. If, in fact, only one acolyte is present, he should perform the more important duties while the rest are to be distributed among several ministers.

    The Introductory Rites

    188. In the procession to the altar, the acolyte may carry the cross, walking between two ministers with lighted candles. Upon reaching the altar, however, the acolyte places the cross upright near the altar so that it may serve as the altar cross; otherwise, he puts it away in a dignified place. Then he takes his place in the sanctuary.

    189. Through the entire celebration, it is for the acolyte to approach the Priest or the Deacon, whenever necessary, in order to present the book to them and to assist them in any other way required. Thus it is appropriate that, in so far as possible, the acolyte should occupy a place from which he can easily carry out his ministry either at the chair or at the altar.

    The Liturgy of the Eucharist

    190. In the absence of a Deacon, after the Universal Prayer and while the Priest remains at the chair, the acolyte places the corporal, the purificator, the chalice, the pall, and the Missal on the altar. Then, if necessary, the acolyte assists the Priest in receiving the gifts of the people and, if appropriate, brings the bread and wine to the altar and hands them to the Priest. If incense is being used, the acolyte presents the thurible to the Priest and assists him while he incenses the offerings, the cross, and the altar. Then the acolyte incenses the Priest and the people.

    191. A duly instituted acolyte, as an extraordinary minister, may, if necessary, assist the Priest in distributing Communion to the people.[99] If Communion is given under both kinds, in the absence of a Deacon, the acolyte administers the chalice to the communicants or holds the chalice if Communion is given by intinction.

    192. Likewise, after the distribution of Communion is complete, a duly instituted acolyte helps the Priest or Deacon to purify and arrange the sacred vessels. In the absence of a Deacon, a duly instituted acolyte carries the sacred vessels to the credence table and there purifies them, wipes them, and arranges them as usual.

    193. After the celebration of Mass, the acolyte and other ministers return together with the Deacon and the Priest in procession to the sacristy, in the same manner and in the same order in which they entered.

    D) The Functions of the Reader

    Introductory Rites

    194. In the procession to the altar, in the absence of a Deacon, the reader, wearing approved attire, may carry the Book of the Gospels, slightly elevated. In that case, the reader walks in front of the Priest but otherwise walks along with the other ministers.

    195. Upon reaching the altar, the reader makes a profound bow with the others. If he is carrying the Book of the Gospels, he approaches the altar and places the Book of the Gospels upon it. Then the reader takes his own place in the sanctuary with the other ministers.

    The Liturgy of the Word

    196. The reader reads from the ambo the readings that precede the Gospel. In the absence of a psalmist, the reader may also proclaim the Responsorial Psalm after the First Reading.

    197. In the absence of a Deacon, the reader, after the introduction by the Priest, may announce the intentions of the Universal Prayer from the ambo.

    198. If there is no singing at the Entrance or at Communion and the antiphons given in the Missal are not recited by the faithful, the reader may read them at an appropriate time (cf. nos. 48, 87).

    II. Concelebrated Mass

    199. Concelebration, by which the unity of the Priesthood, of the Sacrifice, and also of the whole People of God is appropriately expressed, is prescribed by the rite itself for the Ordination of a Bishop and of Priests, at the Blessing of an Abbot, and at the Chrism Mass.

    It is recommended, moreover, unless the good of the Christian faithful requires or suggests otherwise, at:

    a) the Evening Mass of the Lord’s Supper;

    b) the Mass during Councils, gatherings of Bishops, and Synods;

    c) the Conventual Mass and the principal Mass in churches and oratories;

    d) Masses at any kind of gathering of Priests, either secular or religious.[100]

    Every Priest, however, is allowed to celebrate the Eucharist individually, though not at the same time as a concelebration is taking place in the same church or oratory. However, on Holy Thursday, and for the Mass of the Easter Vigil, it is not permitted to celebrate Mass individually.

    200. Visiting Priests should be gladly admitted to concelebration of the Eucharist, provided their Priestly standing has been ascertained.

    201. When there is a large number of Priests, concelebration may take place even several times on the same day, where necessity or pastoral advantage commend it. However, this must be done at different times or in distinct sacred places.[101]

    202. It is for the Bishop, in accordance with the norm of law, to regulate the discipline for concelebration in all churches and oratories of his diocese.

    203. To be held in particularly high regard is that concelebration in which the Priests of any given diocese concelebrate with their own Bishop at a stational Mass, especially on the more solemn days of the liturgical year, at the Ordination Mass of a new Bishop of the diocese or of his Coadjutor or Auxiliary, at the Chrism Mass, at the Evening Mass of the Lord’s Supper, at celebrations of the Founder Saint of a local Church or the Patron of the diocese, on anniversaries of the Bishop, and, lastly, on the occasion of a Synod or a pastoral visitation.

    In the same way, concelebration is recommended whenever Priests gather together with their own Bishop whether on the occasion of a retreat or at any other gathering. In these cases the sign of the unity of the Priesthood and also of the Church inherent in every concelebration is made more clearly manifest.[102]

    204. For a particular reason, having to do either with the significance of the rite or of the festivity, the faculty is given to celebrate or concelebrate more than once on the same day in the following cases:

    a) a Priest who has celebrated or concelebrated the Chrism Mass on Thursday of Holy Week may also celebrate or concelebrate the Evening Mass of the Lord’s Supper;

    b) a Priest who has celebrated or concelebrated the Mass of the Easter Vigil may celebrate or concelebrate Mass during the day on Easter Sunday;

    c) on the Nativity of the Lord (Christmas Day), all Priests may celebrate or concelebrate three Masses, provided the Masses are celebrated at their proper times of day;

    d) on the Commemoration of All the Faithful Departed (All Souls’ Day), all Priests may celebrate or concelebrate three Masses, provided that the celebrations take place at different times, and with due regard for what has been laid down regarding the application of second and third Masses;[103]

    e) a Priest who concelebrates with the Bishop or his delegate at a Synod or pastoral visitation, or concelebrates on the occasion of a gathering of Priests, may celebrate Mass again for the benefit of the faithful. This holds also, with due regard for the prescriptions of law, for groups
    of religious.

    205. A concelebrated Mass, whatever its form, is arranged in accordance with the norms commonly in force (cf. nos. 112-198), observing or adapting however what is set out below.

    206. No one is ever to join a concelebration or to be admitted as a concelebrant once the Mass has already begun.

    207. In the sanctuary there should be prepared:

    a) seats and texts for the concelebrating Priests;

    b) on the credence table: a chalice of sufficient size or else several chalices.

    208. If a Deacon is not present, the functions proper to him are to be carried out by some of the concelebrants.

    If other ministers are also absent, their proper parts may be entrusted to other suitable faithful laypeople; otherwise, they are carried out by some of the concelebrants.

    209. The concelebrants put on in the vesting room, or other suitable place, the sacred vestments they customarily wear when celebrating Mass individually. However, should a just cause arise (e.g., a more considerable number of concelebrants or a lack of vestments), concelebrants other than the principal celebrant may omit the chasuble and simply wear the stole over the alb.

    The Introductory Rites

    210. When everything has been properly arranged, the procession moves as usual through the church to the altar. The concelebrating Priests walk ahead of the principal celebrant.

    211. On arriving at the altar, the concelebrants and the principal celebrant, after making a profound bow, venerate the altar with a kiss, then go to their designated seats. As for the principal celebrant, if appropriate, he incenses the cross and the altar and then goes to the chair.

    The Liturgy of the Word

    212. During the Liturgy of the Word, the concelebrants remain at their places, sitting or standing whenever the principal celebrant does.

    When the Alleluia is begun, all rise, exept for a Bishop, who puts incense into the thurible without saying anything and blesses the Deacon or, in the absence of a Deacon, the concelebrant who is to proclaim the Gospel. However, in a concelebration where a Priest presides, the concelebrant who in the absence of a Deacon proclaims the Gospel neither requests nor receives the blessing of the principal celebrant.

    213. The Homily is usually given by the principal celebrant or by one of
    the concelebrants.

    The Liturgy of the Eucharist

    214. The Preparation of the Gifts (cf. nos. 139-146) is carried out by the principal celebrant, while the other concelebrants remain at their places.

    215. After the Prayer over the Offerings has been said by the principal
    celebrant, the concelebrants approach the altar and stand around it, but in such a way that they do not obstruct the execution of the rites and that the sacred action may be seen clearly by the faithful. Nor should they obstruct the Deacon whenever he needs to approach the altar by reason of his ministry.

    The Deacon exercises his ministry near the altar, assisting whenever necessary with the chalice and the Missal. However, in so far as possible, he stands back slightly, behind the concelebrating Priests standing around the principal celebrant.

    The Manner of Pronouncing the Eucharistic Prayer

    216. The Preface is sung or said by the principal Priest Celebrant alone; but the Sanctus (Holy, Holy, Holy) is sung or recited by all the concelebrants, together with the people and the choir.

    217. After the Sanctus (Holy, Holy, Holy), the concelebrating Priests continue the Eucharistic Prayer in the way described below. Only the principal celebrant makes the gestures, unless other indications are given.

    218. The parts pronounced by all the concelebrants together and especially the words of Consecration, which all are obliged to say, are to be recited in such a manner that the concelebrants speak them in a low voice and that the principal celebrant’s voice is heard clearly. In this way the words can be more easily understood by the people.

    It is a praiseworthy practice for the parts that are to be said by all the concelebrants together and for which musical notation is provided in the Missal to be sung.

    Eucharistic Prayer I, or the Roman Canon

    219. In Eucharistic Prayer I, or the Roman Canon, the Te igitur (To you, therefore, most merciful Father) is said by the principal celebrant alone, with hands extended.

    220. It is appropriate that the commemoration (Memento) of the living and the Communicantes (In communion with those) be assigned to one or other of the concelebrating Priests, who then pronounces these prayers alone, with hands extended, and in a loud voice.

    221. The Hanc igitur (Therefore, Lord, we pray) is said once again by the principal celebrant alone, with hands extended.

    222. From the Quam oblationem (Be pleased, O God, we pray) up to and including the Supplices (In humble prayer we ask you, almighty God), the
    principal celebrant alone makes the gestures, while all the concelebrants pronounce everything together, in this manner:

    a) the Quam oblationem (Be pleased, O God, we pray) with hands extended toward the offerings;

    b) the Qui pridie (On the day before he was to suffer) and the Simili modo (In a similar way) with hands joined;

    c) the words of the Lord, with each extending his right hand toward the bread and toward the chalice, if this seems appropriate; and at the elevation looking toward them and after this bowing profoundly;

    d) the Unde et memores (Therefore, O Lord, as we celebrate the memorial) and the Supra quae (Be pleased to look upon) with hands extended;

    e) for the Supplices (In humble prayer we ask you, almighty God) up to and including the words through this participation at the altar, bowing with hands joined; then standing upright and crossing themselves at the words may be filled with every grace and heavenly blessing.

    223. It is appropriate that the commemoration (Memento) of the dead and the Nobis quoque peccatoribus (To us, also, your servants) be assigned to one or other of the concelebrants, who pronounces them alone, with hands extended, and in a loud voice.

    224. At the words To us, also, your servants, who though sinners, of the Nobis quoque peccatoribus, all the concelebrants strike their breast.

    225. The Per quem haec omnia (Through whom you continue) is said by the principal celebrant alone.

    Eucharistic Prayer II

    226. In Eucharistic Prayer II, the part You are indeed Holy, O Lord is pronounced by the principal celebrant alone, with hands extended.

    227. In the parts from Make holy, therefore, these gifts to the end of Humbly we pray, all the concelebrants pronounce everything together as follows:

    a) the part Make holy, therefore, these gifts, with hands extended toward
    the offerings;

    b) the parts At the time he was betrayed and In a similar way with
    hands joined;

    c) the words of the Lord, with each extending his right hand toward the bread and toward the chalice, if this seems appropriate; and at the elevation looking toward them and after this bowing profoundly;

    d) the parts Therefore, as we celebrate and Humbly we pray with
    hands extended.

    228. It is appropriate that the intercessions for the living, Remember, Lord, your Church, and for the dead, Remember also our brothers and sisters, be assigned to one or other of the concelebrants, who pronounces them alone, with hands extended, and in a loud voice.

    Eucharistic Prayer III

    229. In Eucharistic Prayer III, the part You are indeed Holy, O Lord is pronounced by the principal celebrant alone, with hands extended.

    230. In the parts from Therefore, O Lord, we humbly implore you to the end of Look, we pray upon the oblation, all the concelebrants pronounce everything together as follows:

    a) the part Therefore, O Lord, we humbly implore you with hands extended toward the offerings;

    b) the parts For on the night he was betrayed and In a similar way with
    hands joined;

    c) the words of the Lord, with each extending his right hand toward the bread and toward the chalice, if this seems appropriate; and at the elevation looking toward them and after this bowing profoundly;

    d) the parts Therefore, O Lord, as we celebrate the memorial and Look, we pray, upon the oblation with hands extended.

    231. It is appropriate that the intercessions May he make of us an eternal offering to you, and May this Sacrifice of our reconciliation, and To our departed brothers and sisters be assigned to one or other of the concelebrants, who pronounces them alone, with hands extended, and in a loud voice.

    Eucharistic Prayer IV

    232. In Eucharistic Prayer IV, the part We give you praise, Father most holy up to and including the words he might sanctify creation to the full is pronounced by the principal celebrant alone, with hands extended.

    233. In the parts from Therefore, O Lord, we pray to the end of Look, O Lord, upon the Sacrifice, all the concelebrants pronounce everything together
    as follows:

    a) the part Therefore, O Lord, we pray with hands extended toward
    the offerings;

    b) the parts For when the hour had come and In a similar way with
    hands joined;

    c) the words of the Lord, with each extending his right hand toward the bread and toward the chalice, if this seems appropriate; and at the elevation looking toward them and after this bowing profoundly;

    d) the parts Therefore, O Lord, as we now celebrate and Look, O Lord, upon the Sacrifice with hands extended.

    234. It is appropriate that the intercessions Therefore, Lord, remember now and To all of us, your children be assigned to one or other of the concelebrants, who pronounces them alone, with hands extended, and in a loud voice.

    235. As for other Eucharistic Prayers approved by the Apostolic See, the norms laid down for each one are to be observed.

    236. The concluding doxology of the Eucharistic Prayer is pronounced solely by the principal Priest Celebrant or together, if this is desired, with the other concelebrants, but not by the faithful.

    The Communion Rite

    237. Then the principal celebrant, with hands joined, says the introduction to the Lord’s Prayer. Next, with hands extended, he says the Lord’s Prayer itself together with the other concelebrants, who also pray with hands extended, and together with the people.

    238. The Libera nos (Deliver us) is said by the principal celebrant alone, with hands extended. All the concelebrants, together with the people, pronounce the concluding acclamation For the kingdom.

    239. After the Deacon or, in the absence of a Deacon, one of the concele-brants, has given the instruction Let us offer each other the sign of peace, all give one another the Sign of Peace. Those concelebrants nearer the principal celebrant receive the Sign of Peace from him before the Deacon does.

    240. During the Agnus Dei (Lamb of God), the Deacons or some of the concelebrants may help the principal celebrant to break the hosts for the Communion of both the concelebrants and the people.

    241. After the commingling, the principal celebrant alone, with hands joined, quietly says either the prayer Domine Iesu Christe, Fili Dei vivi (Lord Jesus Christ, Son of the living God) or the prayer Perceptio Corporis et Sanguinis tui (May the receiving of your Body and Blood).

    242. Once the prayer for Communion has been said, the principal celebrant genuflects and steps back a little. Then one after another the concelebrants come to the middle of the altar, genuflect, and reverently take the Body of Christ from the altar. Then holding it in their right hand, with the left hand placed underneath, they return to their places. However, the concelebrants may remain in their places and take the Body of Christ from the paten held for them by the principal celebrant or held by one or more of the concele-brants passing in front of them, or they may do so by handing the paten one to another, and so to the last of them.

    243. Then the principal celebrant takes a host consecrated in the same Mass, holds it slightly raised above the paten or the chalice, and, facing the people, says the Ecce Agnus Dei (Behold the Lamb of God). With the concelebrants and the people he continues, saying the Domine, non sum dignus (Lord, I am not worthy).

    244. Then the principal celebrant, facing the altar, says quietly, Corpus Christi custodiat me in vitam aeternam (May the Body of Christ keep me safe for eternal life), and reverently receives the Body of Christ. The concelebrants do likewise, giving themselves Communion. After them the Deacon receives the Body and Blood of the Lord from the principal celebrant.

    245. The Blood of the Lord may be consumed either by drinking from the chalice directly, or by intinction, or by means of a tube or a spoon.

    246. If Communion is consumed by drinking directly from the chalice, one of these procedures may be followed:

    a) The principal celebrant, standing at the middle of the altar, takes the chalice and says quietly, Sanguis Christi custodiat me in vitam aeternam (May the Blood of Christ keep me safe for eternal life). He consumes a little of the Blood of Christ and hands the chalice to the Deacon or a concelebrant. He then distributes Communion to the faithful (cf. nos. 160-162).
    The concelebrants approach the altar one after another or, if two chalices are used, two by two. They genuflect, partake of the Blood of Christ, wipe the rim of the chalice, and return to their seats.

    b) The principal celebrant consumes the Blood of the Lord standing as usual at the middle of the altar.

    The concelebrants, however, may partake of the Blood of the Lord while remaining in their places and drinking from the chalice presented to them by the Deacon or by one of the concelebrants, or even passed from one to the other. The chalice is always wiped either by the one who drinks from it or by the one who presents it. After each has communicated, he returns to his seat.

    247. The Deacon reverently drinks at the altar all of the Blood of Christ that remains, assisted, if the case requires, by some of the concelebrants. He then carries the chalice to the credence table and there he or a duly instituted acolyte purifies it, wipes it, and arranges it as usual (cf. no. 183).

    248. The Communion of the concelebrants may also be arranged in such a way that each communicates from the Body of the Lord at the altar and, immediately afterwards, from the Blood of the Lord.

    In this case the principal celebrant receives Communion under both kinds in the usual way (cf. no. 158), observing, however, the rite chosen in each particular instance for Communion from the chalice; and the other concelebrants should do the same.

    After the principal celebrant’s Communion, the chalice is placed at the side of the altar on another corporal. The concelebrants approach the middle of the altar one by one, genuflect, and communicate from the Body of the Lord; then they move to the side of the altar and partake of the Blood of the Lord, following the rite chosen for Communion from the chalice, as has been remarked above.

    The Communion of the Deacon and the purification of the chalice take place as described above.

    249. If the concelebrants’ Communion is by intinction, the principal cele-brant partakes of the Body and Blood of the Lord in the usual way, but making sure that enough of the precious Blood remains in the chalice for the Communion of the concelebrants. Then the Deacon, or one of the concelebrants, arranges the chalice together with the paten containing particles of the host, if appropriate, either in the center of the altar or at the side on another corporal.

    The concelebrants approach the altar one by one, genuflect, and take a particle, intinct it partly into the chalice, and, holding a purificator under their mouth, consume the intincted particle. They then return to their places as at the beginning of Mass.

    The Deacon also receives Communion by intinction and to the concelebrant’s words, Corpus et Sanguis Christi (The Body and Blood of Christ) replies, Amen. Moreover, the Deacon consumes at the altar all that remains of the Precious Blood, assisted, if the case requires, by some of the concele-brants. He carries the chalice to the credence table and there he or a duly instituted acolyte purifies it, wipes it, and arranges it as usual.

    The Concluding Rites

    250. Everything else until the end of Mass is done by the principal celebrant in the usual way (cf. nos. 166-168), with the other concelebrants remaining at their seats.

    251. Before leaving the altar, the concelebrants make a profound bow to the altar. For his part the principal celebrant, along with the Deacon, venerates the altar as usual with a kiss.

    III. Mass at Which only
    One Minister Participates

    252. At a Mass celebrated by a Priest with only one minister to assist him and to make the responses, the rite of Mass with the people is followed (cf. nos. 120-169), the minister saying the people’s parts if appropriate.

    253. If, however, the minister is a Deacon, he performs his proper functions (cf. nos. 171-186) and likewise carries out the other parts, that is, those of the people.

    254. Mass should not be celebrated without a minister, or at least one of the faithful, except for a just and reasonable cause. In this case, the greetings, the instructions, and the blessing at the end of Mass are omitted.

    255. Before Mass, the necessary vessels are prepared either at the credence table or on the right hand side of the altar.

    The Introductory Rites

    256. The Priest approaches the altar and, after making a profound bow along with the minister, venerates the altar with a kiss and goes to the chair. If he wishes, the Priest may remain at the altar; in which case, the Missal is also prepared there. Then the minister or the Priest says the Entrance Antiphon.

    257. Then the Priest, standing, makes with the minister the Sign of the Cross as the Priest says, In the name of the Father, etc. Facing the minister, he greets him, choosing one of the formulas provided.

    258. Then the Penitential Act takes place, and, in accordance with the rubrics, the Kyrie and the Gloria in excelsis (Glory to God in the highest) are said.

    259. Then, with hands joined, the Priest pronounces, Let us pray, and after a suitable pause, with hands extended he pronounces the Collect. At the end the minister acclaims, Amen.

    The Liturgy of the Word

    260. The readings should, in so far as possible, be proclaimed from the ambo or a lectern.

    261. After the Collect, the minister reads the First Reading and Psalm,
    the Second Reading, when it is to be said, and the verse of the Alleluia or other chant.

    262. Then the Priest, bowing profoundly, says the prayer Munda cor meum (Cleanse my heart) and after this reads the Gospel. At the end he says, The Gospel of the Lord, to which the minister replies, Praise to you, Lord Jesus Christ. The Priest then venerates the book with a kiss, saying quietly the formula Per evangelica dicta (Through the words of the Gospel).

    263. After this, the Priest says the Symbol or Creed, in accordance with the rubrics, together with the minister.

    264. The Universal Prayer follows, which may be said even in this form of Mass. The Priest introduces and concludes it, with the minister announcing the intentions.

    The Liturgy of the Eucharist

    265. In the Liturgy of the Eucharist, everything is done as at Mass with the people, except for the following.

    266. After the acclamation at the end of the embolism that follows the Lord’s Prayer, the Priest says the prayer Domine Iesu Christe, qui dixisti (Lord Jesus Christ, who said to your Apostles). He then adds, The peace of the Lord be with you always, to which the minister replies, And with your spirit. If appropriate, the Priest gives the Sign of Peace to the minister.

    267. Then, while he says the Agnus Dei (Lamb of God) with the minister, the Priest breaks the host over the paten. After the Agnus Dei (Lamb of God), he performs the commingling, saying quietly the prayer Haec commixtio (May this mingling).

    268. After the commingling, the Priest quietly says either the prayer Domine Iesu Christe, Fili Dei vivi (Lord Jesus Christ, Son of the living God) or the prayer Perceptio Corporis et Sanguinis tui (May the receiving of your Body and Blood). Then he genuflects, takes the host, and, if the minister is to receive Communion, turns to the minister and, holding the host a little above the paten or the chalice, says the Ecce Agnus Dei (Behold the Lamb of God), adding with the minister, Lord, I am not worthy. Then facing the altar, the Priest partakes of the Body of Christ. If, however, the minister does not receive Communion, the Priest, after genuflecting, takes the host and, facing the altar, says quietly, Lord, I am not worthy, etc., and the Corpus Christi custodiat me in vitam aeternam (May the Body of Christ keep me safe for eternal life), and consumes the Body of Christ. Then he takes the chalice and says quietly, Sanguis Christi custodiat me in vitam aeternam (May the Blood of Christ keep me safe for eternal life), and consumes the Blood of Christ.

    269. Before Communion is given to the minister, the Communion Antiphon is said by the minister or by the Priest himself.

    270. The Priest purifies the chalice at the credence table or at the altar. If the chalice is purified at the altar, it may be carried to the credence table by the minister or may be arranged once again on the altar, at the side.

    271. After the purification of the chalice, the Priest should observe a brief pause for silence, and after this he says the Prayer after Communion.

    The Concluding Rites

    272. The Concluding Rites are carried out as at a Mass with the people, but the Ite, missa est (Go forth, the Mass is ended) is omitted. The Priest venerates the altar as usual with a kiss and, after making a profound bow with the minister, withdraws.

    IV. Some General Norms for
    All Forms of Mass

    Veneration of the Altar and the Book of the Gospels

    273. According to traditional practice, the veneration of the altar and of the Book of the Gospels is done by means of a kiss. However, where a sign of this kind is not in harmony with the traditions or the culture of some region, it is for the Conference of Bishops to establish some other sign in its place, with the consent of the Apostolic See.

    Genuflections and Bows

    274. A genuflection, made by bending the right knee to the ground, signifies adoration, and therefore it is reserved for the Most Blessed Sacrament, as well as for the Holy Cross from the solemn adoration during the liturgical celebration on Good Friday until the beginning of the Easter Vigil.

    During Mass, three genuflections are made by the Priest Celebrant: namely, after the elevation of the host, after the elevation of the chalice, and before Communion. Certain specific features to be observed in a concele-brated Mass are noted in their proper place (cf. nos. 210-251).

    If, however, the tabernacle with the Most Blessed Sacrament is situated in the sanctuary, the Priest, the Deacon, and the other ministers genuflect when they approach the altar and when they depart from it, but not during the celebration of Mass itself.

    Otherwise, all who pass before the Most Blessed Sacrament genuflect, unless they are moving in procession.

    Ministers carrying the processional cross or candles bow their heads instead of genuflecting.

    275. A bow signifies reverence and honor shown to the persons themselves or to the signs that represent them. There are two kinds of bow: a bow of the head and a bow of the body.

    a) A bow of the head is made when the three Divine Persons are named together and at the names of Jesus, of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and of the Saint in whose honor Mass is being celebrated.

    b) A bow of the body, that is to say, a profound bow, is made to the altar; during the prayers Munda cor meum (Cleanse my heart) and In spiritu humilitatis (With humble spirit); in the Creed at the words et incarnatus est (and by the Holy Spirit . . . and became man); in the Roman Canon at the Supplices te rogamus (In humble prayer we ask you, almighty God). The same kind of bow is made by the Deacon when he asks for a blessing before the proclamation of the Gospel. In addition, the Priest bows slightly as he pronounces the words of the Lord at the Consecration.

    Incensation

    276. Thurification or incensation is an expression of reverence and of prayer, as is signified in Sacred Scripture (cf. Ps 141 [140]:2; Rev 8:3).

    Incense may be used optionally in any form of Mass:

    a) during the Entrance Procession;

    b) at the beginning of Mass, to incense the cross and the altar;

    c) at the procession before the Gospel and the proclamation of the
    Gospel itself;

    d) after the bread and the chalice have been placed on the altar, to incense the offerings, the cross, and the altar, as well as the Priest and the people;

    e) at the elevation of the host and the chalice after the Consecration.

    277. The Priest, having put incense into the thurible, blesses it with the Sign of the Cross, without saying anything.

    Before and after an incensation, a profound bow is made to the person or object that is incensed, except for the altar and the offerings for the Sacrifice of the Mass.

    Three swings of the thurible are used to incense: the Most Blessed Sacrament, a relic of the Holy Cross and images of the Lord exposed for public veneration, the offerings for the Sacrifice of the Mass, the altar cross, the Book of the Gospels, the paschal candle, the Priest, and the people.

    Two swings of the thurible are used to incense relics and images of the Saints exposed for public veneration; this should be done, however, only at the beginning of the celebration, following the incensation of the altar.

    The altar is incensed with single swings of the thurible in this way:

    a) if the altar is freestanding with respect to the wall, the Priest incenses walking around it;

    b) if the altar is not freestanding, the Priest incenses it while walking first to the right hand side, then to the left.

    The cross, if situated on the altar or near it, is incensed by the Priest before he incenses the altar; otherwise, he incenses it when he passes in front of it.

    The Priest incenses the offerings with three swings of the thurible or by making the Sign of the Cross over the offerings with the thurible before going on to incense the cross and the altar.

    The Purification

    278. Whenever a fragment of the host adheres to his fingers, especially after the fraction or after the Communion of the faithful, the Priest should wipe his fingers over the paten or, if necessary, wash them. Likewise, he should also gather any fragments that may have fallen outside the paten.

    279. The sacred vessels are purified by the Priest, the Deacon, or an instituted acolyte after Communion or after Mass, in so far as possible at the credence table. The purification of the chalice is done with water alone or with wine and water, which is then consumed by whoever does the purification. The paten is wiped clean as usual with the purificator.

    Care is to be taken that whatever may remain of the Blood of Christ after the distribution of Communion is consumed immediately and completely at the altar.

    280. If a host or any particle should fall, it is to be picked up reverently; and if any of the Precious Blood is spilled, the area where the spill occurred should be washed with water, and this water should then be poured into the sacrarium in the sacristy.

    Communion under Both Kinds

    281. Holy Communion has a fuller form as a sign when it takes place under both kinds. For in this form the sign of the Eucharistic banquet is more clearly evident and clearer expression is given to the divine will by which the new and eternal Covenant is ratified in the Blood of the Lord, as also the connection between the Eucharistic banquet and the eschatological banquet in the Kingdom of the Father.[104]

    282. Sacred pastors should take care to ensure that the faithful who participate in the rite or are present at it, are made aware by the most suitable means possible of the Catholic teaching on the form of Holy Communion as laid down by the Ecumenical Council of Trent. Above all, they should instruct the Christian faithful that the Catholic faith teaches that Christ, whole and entire, and the true Sacrament, is received even under only one species, and hence that as regards the resulting fruits, those who receive under only one species are not deprived of any grace that is necessary for salvation.[105]

    Furthermore, they should teach that the Church, in her administration of the Sacraments, has the power to lay down or alter whatever provisions, apart from the substance of the Sacraments, that she judges to be more readily conducive to reverence for the Sacraments and the good of the recipients, in view of changing conditions, times, and places.[106] However, at the same time the faithful should be instructed to participate more readily in this sacred rite, by which the sign of the Eucharistic banquet is made more fully evident.

    283. In addition to those cases given in the ritual books, Communion under both kinds is permitted for:

    a) Priests who are not able to celebrate or concelebrate Mass;

    b) the Deacon and others who perform some duty at the Mass;

    c) members of communities at the Conventual Mass or the “community” Mass, along with seminarians, and all those engaged in a retreat or taking part in a spiritual or pastoral gathering.

    The Diocesan Bishop may establish norms for Communion under both kinds for his own diocese, which are also to be observed in churches of religious and at celebrations with small groups. The Diocesan Bishop is also given the faculty to permit Communion under both kinds whenever it may seem appropriate to the Priest to whom a community has been entrusted as its own shepherd, provided that the faithful have been well instructed and that there is no danger of profanation of the Sacrament or of the rite’s becoming difficult because of the large number of participants or for some other cause.

    In all that pertains to Communion under both kinds, the Norms for the Distribution and Reception of Holy Communion under Both Kinds in the Dioceses of the United States of America are to be followed (particularly nos. 27-54).

    284. When Communion is distributed under both kinds:

    a) the chalice is usually administered by a Deacon or, in the absence
    of a Deacon, by a Priest, or even by a duly instituted acolyte or
    another extraordinary minister of Holy Communion, or by one of the faithful who, in a case of necessity, has been entrusted with this duty for a single occasion;

    b) whatever may remain of the Blood of Christ is consumed at the altar by the Priest or the Deacon or the duly instituted acolyte who ministered the chalice. The same then purifies, wipes, and arranges the sacred vessels in the usual way.

    Any of the faithful who wish to receive Holy Communion under the species of bread alone should be given Communion in this form.

    285. For Communion under both kinds the following should be prepared:

    a) If Communion from the chalice is done by drinking directly from the chalice, a chalice of a sufficiently large size or several chalices are prepared. However, care should be taken lest beyond what is needed of the Blood of Christ remains to be consumed at the end of the celebration.

    b) If Communion from the chalice is done by intinction, the hosts should be neither too thin nor too small, but rather a little thicker than usual, so that after being intincted partly into the Blood of Christ they can still be easily distributed.

    286. If Communion of the Blood of Christ is carried out by communicants’ drinking from the chalice, each communicant, after receiving the Body of Christ, moves to the minister of the chalice and stands facing him. The minister says, The Blood of Christ, the communicant replies, Amen, and the minister hands over the chalice, which the communicant raises to his or her mouth. Each communicant drinks a little from the chalice, hands it back to the minister, and then withdraws; the minister wipes the rim of the chalice with the purificator.

    287. If Communion from the chalice is carried out by intinction, each communicant, holding a Communion-plate under the mouth, approaches the Priest who holds a vessel with the sacred particles, with a minister standing at his side and holding the chalice. The Priest takes a host, intincts it partly in the chalice and, showing it, says, The Body and Blood of Christ. The communicant replies, Amen, receives the Sacrament in the mouth from the Priest, and then withdraws.

     

    Footnotes

    [90] Cf. Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, Sacrosanctum Concilium, no. 41.

    [91]Cf. Caeremoniale Episcoporum, editio typica, 1984, nos. 119-186.

    [92] Cf. Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, Sacrosanctum Concilium, no. 42; Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, Lumen gentium, no. 28; Decree on the Ministry and Life of Priests, Presbyterorum ordinis, no. 5; Sacred Congregation of Rites, Instruction, Eucharisticum mysterium, May 25, 1967, no. 26: Acta Apostolicae Sedis 59 (1967), p. 555.

    [93] Cf. Sacred Congregation of Rites, Instruction, Eucharisticum mysterium, May 25, 1967, no. 47: Acta Apostolicae Sedis 59 (1967), p. 565.

    [94] Cf. Sacred Congregation of Rites, Instruction, Eucharisticum mysterium, May 25, 1967, no. 26: Acta Apostolicae Sedis 59 (1967), p. 555; Instruction, Musicam sacram, March 5, 1967, nos. 16, 27: Acta Apostolicae Sedis 59 (1967), pp. 305, 308.

    [95] Cf. the Interdicasterial Instruction on certain questions regarding the collaboration of the non-ordained faithful in the sacred ministry of Priests, Ecclesiae de mysterio, August 15, 1997, art. 6: Acta Apostolicae Sedis 89 (1997), p. 869.

    [96] Cf. Sacred Congregation for the Sacraments and Divine Worship, Instruction, Inaestimabile donum, April 3, 1980, no. 10: Acta Apostolicae Sedis 72 (1980), p. 336; Interdicasterial Instruction on certain questions regarding the collaboration of the non-ordained faithful in the sacred ministry of Priests, Ecclesiae de mysterio, August 15, 1997, art. 8: Acta Apostolicae Sedis 89 (1997), p. 871.

    [97] Cf. Roman Missal, Appendix III, Rite of Deputing a Minister to Distribute Holy Communion on a Single Occasion.

    [98]Cf. Caeremoniale Episcoporum, editio typica, 1984, nos. 1118-1121.

    [99]Paul VI, Apostolic Letter, Ministeria quaedam, August 15, 1972, no. 6: Acta Apostolicae Sedis 64 (1972), p. 532.

    [100] Cf. Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, Sacrosanctum Concilium, no. 57; Code of Canon Law, can. 902.

    [101] Cf. Sacred Congregation of Rites, Instruction, Eucharisticum mysterium, May 25, 1967, no. 47: Acta Apostolicae Sedis 59 (1967), p. 566.

    [102] Cf. Sacred Congregation of Rites, Instruction, Eucharisticum mysterium, May 25, 1967, no. 47: Acta Apostolicae Sedis 59 (1967), p. 565.

    [103] Cf. Benedict XV, Apostolic Constitution, Incruentum altaris sacrificium, August 10, 1915: Acta Apostolicae Sedis 7 (1915), pp. 401-404.

    [104] Cf. Sacred Congregation of Rites, Instruction, Eucharisticum mysterium, May 25, 1967, no. 32: Acta Apostolicae Sedis 59 (1967), p. 558.

    [105] Cf. Ecumenical Council of Trent, Session XXI, Doctrina de communione sub utraque specie et parvulorum, July 16, 1562, chapters 1-3: Denz-Schön, nos. 1725-1729.

    [106]Cf. Ecumenical Council of Trent, Session XXI, Doctrina de communione sub utraque specie et parvulorum, July 16, 1562, chapter 2: Denz-Schön, no. 1728.

     



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