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Breast-feeding and the Ovulation Method: A Needed Means of Ecologically Sound Child Spacing
M. Francesca Kearns
World Health Organization associate and Billings Ovulation Method teacher, Sister M. Francesca Kearns, details the health and wellness benefits found in the Ovulation Method, especially coupled with breastfeeding.
Suggested ReadingAlbertson, B.D. (1989). Constituents of saliva and breast milk. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 1 [supplement], 53-65.
Chica-Mestre, M.D., Barranco-Castillo, E., & Soler, F. (1992). Breastfeeding to control return of fertility and childbirth. Advances in Contraception, 8, 226.
Cronin, T.J. (1968/August). Influence of lactation upon ovulation. Lancet, 2, 422-424.
Flynn, A.M. (1981). A survey of postpartum fertility studies with particular reference to the breastfeeding mother. International Journal of Fertility, 26(3), 203-208.
Flynn, A.M., Docker, M., Brown, J.B., & Kennedy, K.I. (1991). Ultrasonographic patterns of ovarian activity during breastfeeding. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 165, 2027-2031.
Gross, B.A. (1981). The hormonal and ecological correlates of lactation infertility. International Journal of Fertility, 26(3), 209-218.
Gross, B.A. (1988). Breastfeeding and natural family planning. International Journal of Fertility, 33 [supplement], 24-31.
Gross, B.A. (1991). Is the lactational amenorrhea method a part of natural family planning? Biology and policy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 165, 2014-2019.
Hatherley, L.I. (1985a). Natural family planning after pregnancy. A problem for women with previously irregular menstrual cycles. Clinical Reproduction and Fertility, 3(3), 197-203.
Hatherley, L.I. (1985b). Lactation and postpartum infertility: The use-effectiveness of natural family planning (NFP) after term pregnancy. Clinical Reproduction and Fertility, 3(4), 319-334.
Hatherley, L.I. (1985). Late infertile days in early postpartum cycles. Clinical Reproduction and Fertility, 3(1), 73-80.
Howie, P.W. (1991). Breastfeeding: A natural method for child spacing. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 165, 1990-1991.
Jennings, V.H. (1990). Breastfeeding promotion in family planning programs. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 31 [supplement], 131-133.
Kennedy, K.I., Parenteau-Carreau, S., Flynn, A., Gross, B., Brown, J.B., & Visness, C. (1991). The natural family planning--lactational amenorrhea method interface: Observations from a prospective study of breastfeeding users of natural family planning. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 165, 2020-2026.
Labbok, M., & McDonald, M. (1990). Workshop on health care practices related to breastfeeding, Washington D.C., USA. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 31 [supplement], 1-183.
Labbok, M., & Krasovec, K. (1990). Toward consistency in breastfeeding definitions. Studies in Family Planning, 21, 226-230.
Labbok, M.H., Stallings, R.Y., Shah, F., Perez, A., Klaus, H., Jacobson, M., & Muruthi, T. (1991). Ovulation method use during breastfeeding: Is there increased risk of unplanned pregnancy? American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 165, 2031-2036.
Lewis, P.R., Brown, J.B., Renfree, M.B., & Short, R.V. (1991). The resumption of ovulation and menstruation in a well-nourished population of women breastfeeding for an extended period of time. Fertility & Sterility, 55, 529-536.
Pagano, F., & Barbato, M. (1992). Lactational amenorrhea in an Italian population as an NFP method. Advances in Contraception, 8, 225.
Perez, A. (1981). Natural family planning: Postpartum period. International Journal of Fertility, 26(3), 219-221.
Perez, A., Labbok, M., Barker, D., & Gray, R. (1988). Use-effectiveness of the ovulation method initiated during postpartum breastfeeding. Contraception, 38, 499-508.
Perez, A., & Valdes, V. (1991). Santiago breastfeeding promotion program: Preliminary results of an intervention study. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 165, 2039-2044.
Perez, A., Vela, P., Masnock, G.S., & Potter, R.G. (1972). First ovulation after childbirth: The effect of breastfeeding. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 114, 1041-1047.
Short, R.V., Lewis, P.R., Renfree, M.B., & Shaw, G. (1991). Contraceptive effects of extended lactational amenorrhoea: Beyond the Bellagio Consensus. Lancet, 337, 715-717.
Zinaman, M., & Stevenson, W. (1991). Efficacy of the symptothermal method of natural family planning in lactating women after the return of menses. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 165, 2037-2039.
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