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528 • Conclusion and Appendices

spiritual meaning points to realities

beyond the words themselves and

is subdivided into three categories.

These categories are:


—This recog-

nizes the significance of the

Scriptures in Christ, that is,

the way in which images in

Scripture serve as a type or

foreshadowing of Christ and

his actions.


—This views

realities and events in

Scripture in terms of their

eternal significance.


—What is read in

Scripture inspires or motivates

one to live justly (cf. CCC,

nos. 115-117).


Sin is an offense against God

as well as against reason, truth, and

right conscience; it is a failure in

genuine love for God and neighbor

caused by a perverse attachment to

certain goods. It wounds the nature

of man and injures human solidar-

ity. It has been defined as “an utter-

ance, a deed, or a desire contrary to

the eternal law” (CCC, no. 1849).


One of the Capital Sins; it

involves a lack of effort in meeting

duties and responsibilities to God,

to others, and to oneself.


Society ensures

social justice by providing the

conditions that allow associations

and individuals to obtain their due

(CCC, no. 1943). Social justice

deals with the essential needs of

people if they are to live together

in community with respect for each

other’s dignity. These needs include

food, clothing, and shelter and an

income that supports the family.


Sins that produce

unjust social laws and oppressive

institutions. They are social situa-

tions and institutions contrary to

divine goodness. Sometimes called

“structures of sin” they are the

expression and effect of personal

sins. They lead the victims to do

evil. In a certain sense, they consti-

tute a social sin (CCC, no. 1869).



While the Church from

New Testament times has always

been concerned about the social

needs of the orphan, widow, alien,

and other helpless people, she

began to develop an explicit social

doctrine to respond to the social

problems that have arisen because

of the industrial and technological

revolutions. These teachings are

found in papal encyclicals begin-

ning with Pope Leo XIII’s 1891


On Capital and Labor


Rerum Novarum

) to those of the