Church Documents

The following is a selection of documents related to the Church's teaching on marriage, the family, and the person. For specific documents related to Church teaching on conjugal love, responsible parenthood and Natural Family Planning, see this Church Teaching page.

Here is a compilation of quotes and statements on "gender ideology".

Documents and Statements of the USCCB

Catechism of the Catholic Church (2nd ed., 2000)

The Catechism offers a comprehensive treatment of the Church's teaching and touches upon every facet of the Christian faith. This work is divided into four main sections: the profession of faith (the Creed), the celebration of the Christian mystery (the Liturgy), life in Christ (the moral life), and Christian prayer. While references to marriage and family can be found throughout the entire book, the following paragraphs are particularly applicable:

Second Vatican Council

Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes (1965)
One of the 16 documents composed at the Second Vatican Council, the Council fathers devote an entire section to marriage and the family: nos. 47-52.

Pope Francis

  • For an updated list of homilies, audiences, and other words from Pope Francis on Marriage and Family, check out the Pope Francis corner on For Your Marriage! 
  • Apostolic Exhortation Amoris Laetitia (April 8, 2016)
    This exhortation, "The Joy of Love", is the result of Pope Francis's prayerful reflection on the discussions and outcomes of two synods of bishops held in Rome in October 2014 and October 2015 on marriage and the family. In Amoris Laetitia, Pope Francis shares with the Church his teaching and encouragement regarding pastoral ministry to marriages and families, and the great vocation and mission that married couples and families are called to live out. For more about this document, visit this page.
  • Bulletin insert on the Occasion of the First Anniversary of Pope Francis' Pontificate (March 13, 2014)
    In honor of Pope Francis' one-year anniversary as pontiff, the USCCB Subcommittee for the Promotion and Defense of Marriage compiled a short list with some of his memorable quotes on marriage.
  • Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii Gaudium (Nov. 24, 2013)
    In this Apostolic Exhortation entitled "The Joy of the Gospel," Pope Francis emphasized "the Church's primary mission of evangelization in the modern world." In the second chapter of the document, he recognized that "the family is experiencing a profound cultural crisis, as are all communities and social bonds." The Holy Father then pointed out that "the weakening of these bonds is particularly serious because the family is the fundamental cell of society." See no. 66.
  • Pastoral visit to Assisi (Oct. 4, 2013)
    During a visit to Assisi in October 2013, Pope Francis had the opportunity to meet with the young people of Umbria. The Holy Father was presented with a question from a young married couple regarding the ways the Church can help them face cultural challenges as they live out their vocation. Pope Francis answered by first defining marriage as "a true and authentic vocation...the vocation to form one flesh...male and female" and continued with a beautiful reflection on the vocation of marriage.
  • Encyclical Lumen Fidei (June 29, 2013)
    Translated "The Light of Faith," this is the first encyclical of Pope Francis. Lumen Fidei is a unique Encyclical because Pope Francis contributed to what Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI had written in a first draft of the text. The fourth chapter of the document speaks about "Faith and the Family." It defines the family as "the stable union of man and woman in marriage" and emphasizes the role of faith in family life. See nos. 52-53.

Pope Benedict XVI

  • Apostolic Exhortation Verbum Domini (Sept. 30, 2010)
    This document entitled "The Word of the Lord" was issued by Pope Benedict XVI following the General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops in October 2008. In part two of Verbum Domini, Pope Benedict XVI specifically discusses "The Word of God in the Life of the Church" in which he has a section devoted to marriage and family. He explains that "the word of God is at the very origin of marriage." He recognizes the "widespread confusion" regarding marriage, as well as "the rise of ways of thinking which trivialize the human body and sexual differentiation." See no. 85.
  • Encyclical Caritas in Veritate (June 29, 2009)
    "Charity in Truth" was promulgated in 2009 and was the final encyclical of Pope Benedict XVI. In it, he emphasized the deeper meaning of sexuality and criticized both its reduction to merely pleasure or entertainment, as well as the tendency to regulate it through mandatory birth control. He then called on States to "enact policies promoting the centrality and the integrity of the family founded on marriage between a man and a woman, the primary vital cell of society…" Benedict XVI also pointed out the connection between human and environmental ecology. "Our duties towards the environment are linked to our duties towards the human person." See nos. 15, 44, and 51.
  • Apostolic Exhortation Sacramentum Caritatis (Feb. 22, 2007)
    This document was the first post-synodal apostolic exhortation of Pope Benedict XVI. Entitled "The Sacrament of Charity," it offers a beautiful reflection on the link between the Eucharist and Matrimony. Since it is through the Eucharist that Christ the Bridegroom is able to unite to his Bride, the Church, "a Eucharistic dimension" can be seen in the mutual consent and unity of husband and wife. The Eucharist also expresses the irrevocable nature of God's love for His Church, and in doing so, also implies the indissolubility of Matrimony. See nos. 27-29.
  • For an extensive list of addresses and homilies about marriage, see the book Family (USCCB, 2009) or visit the Church teaching page of Marriage: Unique for a Reason.

Pope John Paul II

  • Letter to Women (1995)
    Pope John Paul II addressed this letter to all the women of the world on the occasion of the Fourth World Conference of Women, sponsored by the United Nations. The letter talks about what it means to be a woman and the essential dignity and rights of women. It includes reflection on key verses from Genesis - "male and female he created them" (Gen 1:27) - and on Mary, in whom we see the highest expression of the "feminine genius" that belongs to all women.
  • Letter to Families (1994)
    Written during the Year of the Family, this letter is one of two key writings of John Paul II on the family (the other being Familiaris Consortio, below) and contains many themes important to his pontificate. The main sections include The Civilization of Love, which reflects on men, women, marriage, children, and society; and The Bridegroom Is With You, an extended meditation on marriage and family's place in the Scriptures, the life of Christ, and the Church.
  • Apostolic Letter Mulieris Dignitatem on the dignity and vocation of women (1988)
    Pope John Paul II wrote this letter on the occasion of the Marian Year and released it on the Solemnity of the Assumption (August 15). Together with "Letter to Women" it serves as a distillation of the Holy Father's theology of womanhood and femininity. Sections include The Image and Likeness of God, which reflects on the biblical witness to man and woman's equal dignity and call to communion; Eve-Mary, a look at the figure of woman in the Scriptures; Jesus Christ and his care for women in the Gospels; Motherhood-Virginity, the two dimensions of woman's vocation; and The Church - The Bride of Christ, an ecclesial/sacramental reflection.
  • Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio on the Christian family in the modern world (1981)
    Written after the 1980 Synod of Bishops on the topic of the family, John Paul II provides an extended treatment of the role of the Christian family both in the Church and in the modern world. He issues an invitation to every family: "Become what you are!" and a roadmap for living out their vocation as a community of persons. Main sections include an assessment of the family's strengths and needs; the plan of God for marriage and the family; the role of the Christian family in forming a community of persons, serving life, developing society, and sharing in the life and mission of the Church; and pastoral care of the family, especially in key developmental moments and times of difficulty.
  • See also John Paul II's Wednesday audiences (1979-1984) collectively known as The "Theology of the Body."
    The Holy Father engages in an extended exegesis of key Scriptural texts on the subject of man and woman's identity (anthropology) and God's design for human sexuality. The talks are divided into two main parts on the words of Christ and the sacrament of marriage. The final section discusses Pope Paul VI's encyclical Humanae Vitae (On Human Life) in depth.  Available in print: Man and Woman He Created Them: A Theology of the Body, trans. Michael Waldstein (Pauline Books, 2006).

Dicastery for the Doctrine of the Faith

  • Declaration Fiducia Supplicans on the Pastoral Meaning of Blessings (2023)
    This document and subsequent press release addresses potential meaning of non-liturgical, spontaneous blessings in informal pastoral contexts.
  • Responsum of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith to a dubium regarding the blessing of the unions of persons of the same sex (2021)
    This response distinguishes between a proposed approval of actions contrary to the Church's teaching on same-sex relationships on the one hand, and on the other hand, God's love for each individual person, including those who experience same-sex relationships. The Church is not capable of adopting the former, but is always called to manifest the latter.
  • Instruction Dignitas Personae on Certain Bioethical Questions (2008)
    This document grapples with a number of bioethical questions raised in response to modern technological advancements in the field of human fertility and infertility. Using the principles of Catholic moral teaching, the document brings clarity and truth to the debates surrounding both procreation and genetic manipulation. See in particular nos. 6-10 and 12; see also Donum Vitae, below.
  • Letter on the Collaboration of Men and Women in the Church and in the World (2004)
    This letter lays out the biblical vision of the human person, man and woman, and gives special attention to the importance of feminine values in the life of the Church and of society.
  • Considerations Regarding Proposals to Give Legal Recognition to Unions between Homosexual Persons (2003)
    This document directly engages the question of redefining marriage in the law to include two persons of the same sex. It outlines the Church's teaching about marriage and sexual difference and provides arguments from reason and natural law against redefining marriage. It concludes with guidance for Catholic politicians in situations where marriage redefinition laws are proposed or in place.
  • Some Considerations Concerning the Response to Legislative Proposals on the Non-Discrimination of Homosexual Persons (1992)
    This brief document draws on the CDF's 1986 letter (below) to provide guidance to bishops and Catholic politicians on legislative proposals regarding non-discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, which raises serious anthropological and moral concerns.
  • Letter Concerning the Reception of Holy Communion by the Divorced and Remarried Members of the Faithful (1994)
    This letter clarified canonical, sacramental and pastoral principles regarding the situation of divorced and civilly remarried Catholics in the life of the Church. While not available on the Vatican website, the letter can be found together with commentaries in On the Pastoral Care of Divorced and Remarried Persons (LEV/USCCB, 2012).
  • Instruction Donum Vitae on respect for human life in its origin and on the dignity of procreation (1987)
    This text is the predecessor to the above document Dignitas Personae. Written in the midst of significant medical innovation in reproductive technology, this document defends the gift and dignity of married love and human life (particularly in its earliest stages) against the onset of intrusive and immoral scientific innovation. See in particular section II, A, 1.
  • Letter on the Pastoral Care of Homosexual Persons (1986)
    This letter provides guidance to bishops, priests, and pastoral ministers who care for men and women who experience same-sex attraction.
  • Declaration Persona Humana on Certain Questions Concerning Sexual Ethics (1975)
    A brief exposition of the Church's teaching on the gift of human sexuality, its proper place within marriage, and the virtue of chastity.

Dicastery for the Laity, Family, and Life

Keys to Bioethics - A Manual of Bioethics for Youth (2022)
This e-book objectively introduces children and young people to the significant issues of bioethics, especially abortion. Adhering to the principles of science and human reason, it aims at helping to give simple answers starting from precise and rigorous technical information, to which the Christian faith adds meaning.

Dicastery for Culture and Education

Male and Female He Created Them (2019)
This document addresses issues surrounding gender theory in educational contexts. It focuses on listening to the cultural developments introduced by gender theory, discusses points of agreement, and offers a critique of  the ideology's shortcomings. It offers rational arguments in support of Church teaching and proposes a Christian anthropology which informs the roles of families, schools, and the broader society.

Pontifical Council for the Family

Family, Marriage and De Facto Unions (2000)
Based on a series of study meetings conducted by the Pontifical Council for the Family, this document provides guidance and reflection on a serious cultural phenomenon, the rise of non-marital cohabitation, a situation that impacts both the personal and public spheres.

Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity

Directory for the Application of Principles and Norms on Ecumenism (1993)
Numbers 143-160 cover the topic of mixed marriages or marriages between a Catholic and a baptized Christian who is not in full communion with the Catholic Church.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church (Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, 2004)

The Compendium, a resource published by the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, is a comprehensive treatment of the Church's teaching about the human person and society, commonly known as Catholic Social Teaching. Because marriage and the family are indispensable elements of society, these topics receive extended treatment. See below for key sections.

  • The Equal Dignity of All People and the Equality in Difference between Man and Woman (CSDC, nos. 144-148)
    Chapter 5: The Family, the Vital Cell of Society (CSDC, nos. 209-254)
    • Importance of the family for the person (CSDC, nos. 212)
    • Importance of the family for society (CSDC, nos. 213-214)
    • Marriage as the foundation of the family (CSDC, nos. 215-218)
    • Sexual identity, difference, and complementarity (CSDC, no. 224)
    • Homosexual unions (CSDC, nos. 228-229)
    • The family is the sanctuary of life (CSDC, nos. 230-237)
    • The family as active participant in social life (CSDC, nos. 246-251)
    • Society at the service of the family (CSDC, nos. 252-254)

Other USCCB Resources

Marriage and the Family in the United States: Resources for Society (2012)
A Review of research on the benefits generated from families rooted in marriage, prepared by staff of the Secretariat of Laity, Marriage, Family Life, and Youth.